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Background: The Job Demand – Resource Model (JD-R) is a job-stress model that focuses on assessing the effect of the employees’ health-related outcomes, and their performances due to stress induced by their job demands, and job resources. Different occupations possess different combinations of specific job-related demands, and job resources. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) is an established self-reported tool that has been widely used to measure general job demands through the JD-R model. In contrast, the BDJD-24 is a model that was developed to assess the specific job demands of the bus drivers’ job demands.
Objective: This study aims to measure the validity and reliability of the job demand questionnaire by applying it on the taxi drivers of Malaysia so as to assess their safety performance (safety motivation and safety compliance).
Method: A sample of 33 (N = 333) taxi drivers from the Klang Valley, Malaysia was recruited. Participants completed the questionnaire in the native language (Malay). To examine the psychometric properties of the COPSOQ and BDJD-24, we used the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) derived from SPSS, and then confirmed it with the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) derived from AMOS.
Results: The internal consistency was found to be acceptable, between 0.71 to 0.84. The CFA revealed that the taxi drivers’ job demands, as proposed, had a 5-dimensional influence. The five demands (i.e. emotional, hiding emotion, sensory, time, and safety) were clearly distinguished in the factor analysis. The KMO was adequate, at 0.78, and the variance for the 5-factor structure was 51.97%. The CFA also confirmed the correlation among these demands.
Discussion: It is found that the COPSOQ and the BDJD-24 measurement were both reliable and valid for measuring the taxi drivers’ job demands. However, the general vs. specific job demands hypothesis, as proposed by the JD-R model, was not supported. The general job demands (emotional demands) were found to be more strongly associated with safety motivation, and safety compliance. The practical implications and limitations of the present study are further discussed in the paper.
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