THE ASSOCIATION OF PSYCHOSOCIAL HEALTH WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME AMONG SCHOOL TEACHERS IN THE STATE OF MALACCA
Received 2020-12-15; Accepted 2021-09-11; Published 2022-07-01
Keywords:Malaysia, metabolic syndrome, social support, working adults
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a major public health challenge worldwide. The risks of MS and chronic diseases are further escalated with the increasing burden of psychological health. This was a cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between socio-demographic, lifestyle and psychological factors and MS, as well as the independent relationship between social support and MS among school teachers in Malaysia.
Methodology: Multi-stage sampling was used to recruit participants from the state of Malacca, Malaysia. Data on socio-demographics, lifestyle factors and psychological health were obtained using self-administered questionnaires, including Short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Job content questionnaire (JCQ) and the revised 8-item Malay version of the Multidimensional Scale Perceived Social Support (MSPSS-M). Anthropometric measurements and metabolic risk assessment were conducted. Univariate analysis followed by multiple logistic regressions was conducted using complex sample logistic regression analysis.
Results: Of 1511 participants, the prevalence of MS was 23.3% (95% CI: 20.7, 26.1). MS was significantly associated with increasing age, male gender, Indian ethnicity, usage of saturated fats, lesser sleeping duration, job strain, iso-strain, and lower perceived social support. After adjusting for potential confounders, higher perceived social support from family, friends or both were significantly associated with the lower likelihood of MS by 4% (OR 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93, 0.98), 10% (OR 0.90; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.96) and 4% (OR 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94, 0.98), respectively.
Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome was associated with increasing age, male gender, Indian ethnicity, usage of saturated fats and lesser sleeping duration in our population. Psychological health such as job strain, iso strain as well as low social support may be modifiable risk factors for MS.
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