PREVALENCE AND IMMUNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM AMONG NON-INFECTED FISHERMEN IN WHITE NILE STATE, SUDAN
Received 2019-12-30; Accepted 2020-12-04; Published 2021-03-05
Keywords:S. haematobium, Fisherman, Cytokines, IgE, Immunology, Sudan
Bilharziasis is a tropical parasitic disease caused by different species of the genus Schistosoma. One species, S. haematobium, is widely spread in Sudan. There is a scarcity of information about S. haematobium infection among the fishermen in the country. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of S. haematobium infection among fishermen, and the immune status among non-infected fishermen in two villages, El Hadib and Hawer-Ajowel at the White Nile state in Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 119 fishermen in addition to 20 samples from non-endemic area which were included as a control group. Urine samples were examined by sedimentation method and faecal samples were examined by the Kato Katz method and formalin-ether concentration technique. Blood samples were examined for enumeration of IgE antibody and cytokines, interferon Gamma (IFN-Î³), Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) and Interleukin10 (ILâ€“10) levels using ELISA. The result of the study indicated that the overall prevalence of S. haematobium among the fishermen was 35 (29.41 %). Of the 35 positive participants, 23 (65.71 %) were infected for the first time, and 12 (34.29 %) for the second time (re-infection). Twenty-four candidates of the non-infected fishermen were included in the immunological study. The total IgE mean titer was 282.90 Â±70.93 iu/ml, IFN-Î³ mean level was 9.62Â±4.60 pg/ml. TNF, 114.64Â±46.63 pg/ml and the ILâ€“10 was 1.51Â±0.58 pg/ml. High prevalence of S. haematobium exists among fishermen and the non-infected fishermen from the endemic area showed high immune response similar to those exposed to the infection.
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